What Are the Different Types of Educational Placements?
Educational placement options include the general education setting, special education placement, self-contained educational placement, and out-of-district placement. It is helpful to understand the types of placements that exist and how they work so that you can better participate in your team’s discussion. People have many strong opinions about proper placement for students with special needs. Some parents and professionals believe that every student with a disability belongs in the regular education mainstream while others believe that students with disabilities are best served in settings that are specifically tailored to their special needs. The intent of IDEA and its accompanying LRE requirements is that a student should participate in the general education environment as much as is possible without interfering with that student’s ability to access a free appropriate public education (FAPE). Each of the following four types of special education placements has its supporters and critics, but all that matters is the best match for your child, and that may change over time.
While it is important to be familiar with the following terms, it is essential to remember that discussion regarding educational placement is the final step in the IEP development process, and educational placement is a team decision.
In the general education setting, (also known as “inclusion class” or “mainstream placement”) a student is in a regular (“general”) education class with his/her grade-level peers. In addition to the general education teacher, there may be a special education teacher whose job it is to adjust the curriculum to the abilities of the student with an IEP. The incorporation of a special education teacher depends on your child’s IEP. When a general education placement is the best match for a student’s needs, it allows a student to participate in his/her education program in a more complex, natural setting that affords almost continuous opportunities for generalization. However, this setting is only truly helpful if it does not interfere with your child’s ability to make meaningful progress in his/her educational program. When appropriate, related services such as OT, PT, and SLP can be provided in the general education setting. There are some students whose educational requirements are too complex and intense to be effectively addressed in the general education setting.
Students whose educational needs cannot be adequately met in the general education setting may require specialized attention in a more controlled setting. In such a case, students complete grade-level work in targeted subject areas in a setting frequently called the Resource Room. In the Resource Room, a special education teacher works with a small group of students and utilizes instructional methods that will foster meaningful progress for those students. Related services may be provided in the Resource Room setting or a different room outside of the general education environment. Different students require different amounts of time in the Resource Room, and the IEP will designate what percentage of a student’s school day should be in the Resource Room and what percentage in General Education. When the Resource Room is the best match for a student, it offers a combination of the features of the general education setting and the controlled setting of the Resource Room.
Placement in a self-contained classroom means that the student is removed from the general education population for all academic subjects to work in a small, controlled setting with a special education teacher. Some students who are in a “self-contained” educational placement continue to access some general education settings (e.g., lunchroom, recess, and/or special classes like art, music, and library), while some students are “100% self-contained,” meaning that those students are never included in the general education setting. For a student who has autism and whose team has determined partial inclusion in settings that include special classes and recess, there is a particular caution. As with all inclusion, this type of inclusion must be carefully planned. For many students with autism, the lunchroom, for example, can be one of the most problematic settings in the school. The following is important: students with autism have a primary impairment in social skills. Therefore, occasions when they may be included for social participation will need as much planning and support as might be required for inclusion in an academic period of the school day.
While a self-contained educational placement may require a student to go to a school outside your neighborhood, an out-of-district educational placement places a student in a specialized school specifically designed to address targeted areas: specific disability groups, special types of learning needs, special behavioral or emotional needs, and/or some combination of these. When an out-of-district placement is the best match for a student, that student typically has access to highly specialized educational programming in the presence of structure, routine, and consistency. However, similar to a self-contained educational placement, generalization must be carefully considered and access to the “general” population by the school can be limited or nonexistent.